What does it all mean?

You don’t know a term? Here we explain it to you.


Admission, acceptance


One of the various forms of hereditary material at a particular location on the chromosome. Every human has a pair of chromosomes
with two identical or different alleles, which we call homozygotes or heterozygotes. Different alleles in the human
Population are the reason for various inherited characteristics, such as blood group or hair color.


A natural substance found in plants that usually has a bitter taste.

Amino acid:

A basic unit from which proteins are formed. Its formation is on the DNA with 3 consecutive nucleotides
and these result in different amino acids in different combinations, for example GCU stands for alanine and UGU for cysteine.


Prevents cancer.


substances that protect us from oxidative stress.


A blood vessel through which blood drains from the heart. The main artery is the aorta.

Types of fat:

Known are animal saturated fats and vegetable mono- and poly-unsaturated fats.

Dietary fiber:

Indigestible carbohydrates that provide good digestion and a feeling of satiety. These include celulose, lignin and


The body mass index, a measure for evaluating a person’s body weight in relation to their height – The BMI.
relates the body weight to the body surface area, which is approximately calculated from the square of the body height(kg/m2).


helps cholesterol pass through the intestinal mucosa and contains a minimal amount of cholesterol and very many


A non-protein compound bound to proteins and required for the biological activity of the protein.


A stick-like form of the DNA molecule on which many hundreds or thousands of genes are located. The nucleus contains
22 autosomal chromosome pairs and two sex chromosomes. In addition to the DNA molecule, there are also proteins (mostly
histones) around which the DNA wraps. This unwinding, together with other formations, results in a tightly formed chromosome,
which takes up much less space than if the molecule were unwound.

chromosome (autosomal):

A chromosome in which both chromosomes are similar to the chromosome pair. A chromosome of the
chromosome pair comes from the father, the other from the mother.


The blood sugar disease. A chronic condition in which the cells of the pancreas do not produce enough insulin or
the body cannot effectively use the insulin produced.


An appendix of two methyl groups.


A molecule in the cell nucleus that carries instructions for the formation of the organism. The human DNA is separated by four different
nucleotides and has the shape of a double spiral. This means that two complementary DNA chains wrap around each other.
Complementary means that nucleotide C always pairs with G and nucleotide A always pairs with T.

Monounsaturated fats:

An extremely useful type of fatty acids.
A rarer variant (copy) of a gene: a DNA sequence of the gene that contains a variant nucleotide at the analyzed locus,
which is rarer in the population, that is, it has a frequency lower than 50 percent.


The detoxification of the body.


A protein that participates in a chemical process in the body. The function of an enzyme is to provide the activation energy necessary for the
chemical reaction is necessary, thus facilitating their path. Thus, the substrate is transformed into the product much faster,
such as the transformation of starch into glucose.

Essential fats:

Vegetable fats that our body urgently needs.


Are important components and a source of energy, containing twice as much energy as carbohydrates and proteins.

Free radicals:

Unstable chemical substances that can damage cells.


A part of the sequence of DNA that carries information for the formation of proteins. Genes are passed on from the parents and
give all the information for the formation and development of the organism.
Genetic analysis: The overview or analysis of all your genes.


The whole DNA in the nucleus, containing all autosomal chromosomes and both sex chromosomes.


Both allele variants of a person’s gene. The genotype can represent all alleles in the cell, but most often it will be
used to describe one or more genes that together affect a trait.

Genetic makeup:

A term that is most often synonymous with genotype, which is the form of the sequence of the gene of DNA.
Nevertheless, the term can also refer to the region of the genome where the gene is located.


A plant polyphenolic compound of bitter taste, also called tannin.

Saturated fats:

Especially animal fats, which are also called “bad fats” and increase cholesterol levels.

Sex chromosome:

There is female chromosome X and male chromosome Y. Females have two chromosomes X in pair (XX)
and males have chromosomes X and Y (XY), where Y is inherited only from the father and its presence/absence determines the sex
of the child is determined.

Glycemic index:

Shows how much a food increases the blood glucose level, not taking into account the amount of food.

Glycemic load capacity:

Shows by how much a food increases the blood glucose level, thereby the amount of the food is


The basic form in which glucose is stored in the body.


The most important representative of carbohydrates, which is also called blood sugar.

Common variant (copy) of a gene:

A DNA sequence of the gene that has a nucleotide at the analyzed locus that is present in the population.
is more frequent, i.e. has a frequency of more than 50 percent.

HDL cholesterol:

The good cholesterol. The highest possible level is desired.

Hydrogenated fats:

Trans fats formed when vegetable oils are heated at high temperatures.


A cherry-sized organ in the center of the brain that is the data center of all endocrine hormones.


Are lipoproteins of intermediate density (“intermediate density lipoprotein”) that are formed with the degradation of VLDL.


The hormone that regulates blood glucose levels

Insulin resistance:

The state in which the body does not respond to insulin, the hormone that regulates blood glucose levels.


A term that usually refers to people of white race.


Kcal stands for kilocalorie, but most of the time we just talk about calories.

Complex carbohydrates:

Complex carbohydrates, which are digested slowly, so that the energy through a longer period of time
is released and we are full longer. Blood sugar is increased only slowly and not rapidly as with simple sugars.


Next to proteins and fats, the most important macronutrient that acts as a primary source of energy.

Creatine phosphate:

A high-energy molecule that provides a source of energy for muscle.


Milk sugar, which consists of glucose and galactose.
LDL cholesterol: Is harmful to our health, so cholesterol levels must be kept as low as possible.


The process of fat loss.

Lipoprotein particles:

They bind cholesterol and transport it through the body.


These include carbohydrates, proteins and fats (saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated).

Polyunsaturated fats:

An extremely important type of fatty acid. These include omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.


Nutrients that our body needs in smaller quantities, but they are extremely important for our health.
These include vitamins and minerals.


Responsible for the transport and storage of oxygen in muscles.

Muscle fiber:

Cells that form muscles. So they are called because they have an elongated shape.


The most basic and simple form of carbohydrates, such as: glucose, fructose, mannose…


A random change in the code of the genetic material. Deletions are known to occur, whereby nucleotides on a portion of the genetic
material are deleted, insertions in which the nucleotides are inserted on a portion of the genetic material, and substitutions,
where some nucleotides are replaced by others.


The basic unit by which the gene is encoded. The single unit consists of a phosphate group, pentose (sugar with five
carbon atoms in the ring) and a nitrogen base. Different nitrogen bases exist between the individual nucleotides. The
Human DNA consists of four different nitrogen bases – cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T) and adenosine (A).

Osmotic pressure:

The pressure required for a cell to receive water.


The presence of one or more different alleles of a gene in the population. The consequence of this is the
Presence of several different phenotypes. However, a different allele must be present in more than one percent of the population
be that we call this polymorphism.

Probiotic yogurt:

Contains probiotic bacteria that help regulate digestion.
Phenotypic Trait: A recognizable characteristic of the individual, such as eye color.


Purified and industrially processed so that it has an unfavorable effect on our health.

Reactive oxygen species:

Highly reactive free radicals containing oxygen.


A risk, for example, of obesity, vitamin or mineral deficiency, which is determined by your genes.

SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism):

Is a polymorphism on a precisely defined site of the DNA that occurs when a nucleotide
is replaced by another (for example, A – C) and represents a variation in the genetic code, and this differs from human
to man. These variations can be numerous, as there are approximately 100 million SNPs in the human genome. The described
Changes show up in humans as phenotypic differences (diseases, traits).


A metabolic process that involves the breakdown or formation of new substances in the body.


The process of generating heat.

Trans fats:

Are also called hydrogenated or bad fats. They are formed when oil is heated excessively and increase the bad
and lower good cholesterol.


The form in which our body stores fats. A high level of triglycerides in the blood is unhealthy and associated with numerous diseases.

Unsaturated fats:

Vegetable fats, the only exceptions are coconut and palm oil.


A lipoprotein of a very low density (“very low density lipoprotein”), which is the cholesterol produced only in the liver,
transported through the body.

Cellular respiration:

An important process in which glucose and oxygen are transformed into energy, carbohydrates and water.